Note: Projects are always due at the beginning of class.   Journals are due along with each project (midnight via email). These dates are tentative and may change. If I have not announced a change, it is your responsibility to get the work in on the due date.

All written assignments/journals are due in class or via email by midnight on their due dates below. Email assignments to

For questions outside of class email me at or text 917-740-9378 or make an appointment with me. I am usually available after each class.

Class Projects
Project 1, Non-Object: 2/3
Project 2, Representational Self-Portrait:
Primary Contour, basic measurements and eye sockets:
Skull: 2/10
Muscles/skin: Mon. 2/15
Features: Wed. 2/22
Finish Features/Hair: Mon. 2/24
Critique: Mon. 2/29
Hollow: Wed. 3/2
Project 3, Substitution Cast Metal:
Wax: Wed. 3/9
Clean up bronze:
Project 4, Abstraction, Wood Construction: 5/16

Homework Project,
Content Based Assemblage: 5/2
Research/Journal (example images and 1.5 pages on 3 possible topics) and examples is assemblage art 4/11
Project due and remaining journal: 5/2


Artist Research Paper: 2/1
Self research Paper: 3/2
Assemblge Journal Step 1-2: 4/11
Gallery Paper:  4/4
Assemblage Journal Step 3-4: 12/2

Final Crits: Wed. 5/16

Drop Dates:
Without a W on transcript 2/1With a W on transcript 3/11



Below are two links to view a sample journal.  For your journal, I want you to find and cite sources for your own images and rewrite these answers into you own words.

Link to view a copy of the sample journal via google drive.

Link to view a sample journal via Dropbox.


Sample image created using Artrage

Objective: Within sculpture, the open spaces around and inside the form are just as important as the masses that actually make up the form.  Your objective is create an non-objective form that not only uses directional forces to lead the viewers eyes around the piece, but encourages them to investigate the internal areas of the form.  You should also consider the use of texture/pattern to create areas of emphasis and subordination.  This is a purely formal exercise – there should be no reference to actual objects or ideas nor should the piece have a distinct front, back, top or bottom.

Artists to look at:
Barbara Hepworrth, Henry Moore, Jean Arp, Isamu Noguchi

Step 1:  Find at least five forms that you find interesting for their shape and texture – not what they actually represent, and gather images or drawings of these forms.  Create drawings based on the visual elements that you find interesting from these forms.  They should not in any way resemble the original forms, nor should they resemble any real object.  This is an exercise in pure design.  You should spend at least thirty minutes exploring and evolving these shapes.  At no point should your images give reference to actual objects.

Step 2:  Choose the most interesting of your drawings develop that shape in three dimensional form with clay (3”-4” in size).  This form should not have a specific front or back/top or bottom – it should appear complete from all views and include a negative space.  Complete three models based on your drawings.

Step 3:  Cast a block by pouring plaster into a 1 gallon bucket that is sprayed with a release like “PAM” cooking spray.  Your final block should be no smaller than 6” in any direction and no larger than 10” in any direction.  You may chose to add pigment at the mixing stage or you may choose to add color to the form after carving.  Chose your favorite clay model and use it as a basis for your carving.  Subtract material using chisels and rasps to duplicate your clay model.  Pay special attention to the balance of positive and negative space.  Be careful in creating any narrow forms, especially one that protrude from the form, because the plaster will be fragile and can break easily.

Keep in mind how the form will interact with the ground or its base.  How will color or pattern effect the final presentation?  Is the viewer enticed to walk around and look inside the form?  Is the internal texture the same as the external? (100pts.)

Materials Needed:  your journal,
1. 25 pounds of cone 10, high fire clay (you will use a small portion for the project and the remaining for the representational project)
Best sources are: FCC Bookstore, Clay Mix 1003 N. Abbey Street, Potter’s Studio on 905 “R” Street
2. Art plaster, molding plaster or plaster of paris – for the best deal financially, you should consider splitting a 50 pound bag between 2 people from
Eagle Building Materials – 1407 N. Clark.
It will cost at least 2xs as much from any other place.
3. A three to five gallon bucket to act as a mold
4. Cooking Spray or wd40 to act as a release
5. Dust mask and safety glasses
You also may want to get chisels, a mallet, pigment, paint and or sandpaper from Harbor Freight/Mac Frugal or a “Dollar Store”, sandpaper, pigment, paint.

Safety Gear:
You will need ear plugs,goggles and dust masks.    You may also want rubber gloves and leather gloves.

Journal Questions:

  • Xerox/print at least ten examples of non-objective sculpture.
  • Photograph or draw five forms you find interesting for their form
  • Create a detailed drawing of your finished form.
  • Define non-objective as it applies to sculpture.
  • Define subtraction as it applies to sculpture.
  • Define both positive and negative space?  Lable these on your drawing.
  • What is a directional force (define)? Lable this on your drawing?
  • What safety precautions should you take with plaster?

In the pdf attached below are instructions for mixing, carving, baking and finishing noon-objective project.

Non-Objective Sculpture

Beverly Pepper                     Louise Nevelson
Alexander Archipenko           Jean Arp
Joseph Beuys                       Umberto Boccioni
Louise Bourgeois                   Constantin Brancusi
Alexander Calder                  Marcel Duchamp
Alberto Giacometti                Henry Moore
Barbara Hepworth                Claus Oldenburg
Kurt Schwitters                    Vladmir Tatlin
Jean Tinguely                      Carl  Andre
Arman                              Ernest Barlach
Christo                            Naum Gabo
Ann Hamilton                       Rebecca Horn
Jean Pierre Raynaud            Jenny Holzar
Anish Kapoor                       Sol LeWitt
Jacques Lipchitz                   Aristide Maillol
Isamu Noguchi                      Nam June Paik
Anton Pevsner                      Germaine Richier
Niki de Saint-Phalle            George Segal
Tony Smith                         David Smith
Robert Smithson                   Robert Arneson
Alice Aycock                       Stephen De Stabler
Viola Frey                         Antony Gormley
Robert Graham                      Richard Long
Sandy Skoglund                    Cindy Sherman
Jim Dine                           Manuel Neri
John Chamberlain                Ernest Trova
Kiki Smith                         Eva Hesse
Ana Mendieta                       Dan Flavin
Richard Serra                      Robert Morris
Ed Kienholz                        Fluxus “Events”
Mark Quinn                         Duane Hanson
Robert Gober                       Jacob Epstein
Lynda Benglis                      Larry Bell
Bruce Beasley                      John De Andrea
Andrew Goldsworthy           Walter De Maria
Nancy Graves                       Nancy Holt
Donald Judd                        Gaston Lachaise
Marisol                            Jackie Winsor
David Nash                         James Turrell
Michael Heizer                     Joseph Kosuth
Martin Puryear                     Betye Saar
Allison Saar                       Fred Wilson
Judy Chicago                       Lee Bontecou
Magdalena Abakanowicz     Marino Marini
Joseph Cornell                     Jean Dubuffet
Jackie Ferrara                     Audrey Flack
Red Grooms                         Guerrilla Girls
Juis Jimenez                       Maya Lin
Judy Pfaff                         Albert Paley
Robert Rauschenberg         George Rickey
Kenneth Snelson                   Robert Irwin
Athony Caro                        Eduardo Chillida
James Surls                        Magdalena Jetalova
Patrick Dougherty                 Nils Udo
Ken Unsworth                       Elizabeth Catlett
Kathe Kollowitz. Javier Marin

Step 1:  Chose one of the artists from the list found in the next post in this blog and find three or more articles about the artist and their work.  Photocopy a picture of at least one piece by the artist and copies of the articles you find to turn in with your essay. Also cite your sources throughout the paper.

Step 2:  Introduce me to the artist.  Write a page about who they are.

Step 3:  Write a page describing the artists work.  Use the visual elements in your description:  line, shape, mass, space, color, light, time, motion, texture and pattern. Also explain how the artist uses the principles of design in his/her work such as:  Emphasis and Subordination, Unity and Variety, Contrast, Balance (symmetrical and asymmetrical), Directional Force, Repetition and Rhythm, Scale and Proportion.

Step 4:  Write a paragraph describing the meaning, purpose or subject matter of the artists work. Is there a theme that the artist tends to deal with? How does this work fit with the theme.  Is the work representational, abstract or non-representational?

Step 5:  Write a concluding paragraph describing your own opinions of the artist’s work. Step 2 should be at least 1 page long. Steps 3-4 should be at least 1.5 pages long for a total of at least 2.5 pages.

The paper should be typed double spaced and two and 1/2 or more pages long ( I will accept handwritten papers, however they must be three pages in length and  if I have any trouble reading them I will not grade them.  You should use complete sentences.  If you use direct quotes, you should cite the sources of the quotes (author, title of article, name of book/magazine, name of publisher, date of publication, page number(s).

My preference is that they be turned in via email to by midnight on the due date.

Materials 1-6 are needed during the second class. These are the materials and tools for the first two projects.

1.  50 bag of molding plaster to be shared with one other person from Eagle Building Materials at 1407 N. Clark
2. 3-5 gallon bucket
3. Cooking spray or WD40
4. Dust mask and safety glasses
5. 25 pounds of high fire cone 10 clay. This can be purchased at the bookstore or from one of the following places:
a. Clay Mix at 1003 N. Abby
b. Potter’s Studio at 925 R St.
c. Jean’s Ceramics at 5714 E. Sheilds
6. Small paring knife and spoon (home or $1 store)
7. Colored chalk or marker
8. Clear spray paint
9. Wet/dry 100 grit sandpaper and or drywall sandpaper

Optional items for first project:

1. Set of wood chisels and rubber mallet – cheapest place is Harbor Freight
2. Apron or coveralls
3. Earplugs
4. Metal measuring calipers (used for clay project as well, from book store or clay stores)
5. Drywall sandpaper or 100 grit wet dry sandpaper (will be used for more than one project)
6. Clear Acrylic Spraypaint (will be used for several projects)
7. Pigment for dyeing plaster when mixing or paint and primer for coloring plaster after carving.

Required items for project 2

1. “Pointed scoop” clay tool – clay stores
2. Basic set of sculpture modelling tools (Micheal’s is a good place)
3. Large plastic bag(s) or plastic wrap
4. Kitchen towel(s) ($1 store)
5. Paring knife and spoon ($1 store)
6. 6-8″ long, 1/2″ thick threaded pipe and matching flange (in plumbing dept.)

Optional items for project 2
1. Metal measuring calipers (found in book store or clay stores)
2. 12″ ruler
3. Apron or coveralls

If you want to use one of the lockers inside the classroom you will need a combination lock. The locker must shared with one other student.

·žPlaster is a stone called Gypsum that is ground to powder and kiln dried to remove all its moisture.  At this point, water can be added back to the powder to return it to a stone state.


·žFirst spray oil the bucket you are using as a mold. Then fill a second clean bucket no more than ½ full of cool water (using hot water causes a very hot and fast reaction). Add pigment, if you are going for a solid colored block.

·ž Sift powder into the bucket until you have a large cone shaped mound in the center of the container that will not sink when you poke it with your finger.  Ususally this is about 1 to 1 1/2 parts plaster to every one part water.

·žMix thoroughly, trying not to add air bubbles.  Once you start mixing do not add plaster or water.  This will cause problems in setting.  If the mixture is in the realm of a runny milkshake you are in good shape.

·žAs soon as the chunks are grape sized or smaller, you can pour it into your bucket that has been sprayed with oil. If you want the block to be marbled with pigment, you may with stir pigment inn as you put it into the bucket or you may succeed the mixture into two buckets and add pigment to one bucket them swirl the two plasters together into the oiled bucket.

Make sure that the plate is at least 8″ high in the bucket!

Clean your pouring bucket with newspaper and a scraper. Make sure the ground where you were pouring, cleaning and mixing is clean.


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